It took 109 years, but when it came it was swift - as brutal as it was clinical.Julia Gillard made history yesterday when she became Australia's first female Prime Minister, sworn in by our first female Governor-General Quentin Bryce.Growing discontent with Kevin Rudd's non-consultative style and his recent poor showing in opinion polls were the catalyst for the toga-like conspiracy against him.So deep was the resentment within the ALP, the dominoes fell quickly on Wednesday night. During the afternoon, senior Labor Right figures had called on Ms Gillard and within hours key unions and the NSW Right were backing her.With no real factional support, Mr Rudd knew the die was cast and did the honourable thing by bowing out, thus avoiding the indignity of a massive ballot defeat.Mr Rudd was against the wall because of the super profits mining tax and the wonky economics of his emissions trading scheme.Like US President Barack Obama, he came to power riding on the hopes of his country after socially austere and conservative times.History will show his achievements were saying "Sorry", the signing of the Kyoto Protocol and avoiding recession. It will also record his nosedive, from being the most popular ever PM to the first Labor PM to be ousted in their first term.Prime Minister Gillard knows her honeymoon will not last. And her battle with Opposition Leader Tony Abbott promises to be an enthralling showdown. (Perhaps voters will even have real policy choices.)The fact we have a woman for PM is a milestone and cause for real celebration. As important as that is, however, she will be judged on her ability to connect with Australians, "one and all".The big test to this end will be to win a mandate at the coming federal election - and if she does so, then to be able to successfully preside over the factional warlords of the ALP.