Little Taina Tawhai tears around the bike track at Thirroul Playground with both feet at the pedals, his training wheels already a distant memory.
There are hills for the almost four-year-old to fall down and the concrete could make light work of his soft skin, but you won't find his dad Jevon trying to slow him down.
"Some other parents will freak out seeing him on his bike, riding over ramps," said Mr Tawhai. "But we try to set things up in a way that he's confident in his own abilities. I suppose that comes from making a few mistakes and copping a few knocks along the way."
"It's enough to turn you off, seeing how stressed parents are running around after their kids. We're a bit more lax."
If the recently published results of a UOW study are any indicator, the Tawhais are on the right track when it comes to parenting.
The study, by researchers at UOW's Project Air Stategy for Personality Disorders and the Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, found that overprotective so-called "helicopter parents", and those who excessively reward or compliment their children for scant effort or achievement, may be producing tomorrow's narcissists.
When praising your children, let it be done in a way that is proportionate to what they've achieved - and you don't really have to praise a child for everything.
In narcissism, people feel quite positive about themselves (and can appear grandiose) but this positive image easily breaks down when reality hits (leading to feeling vulnerable).
The study findings suggest that children raised in pampered environments are more likely to have grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic traits in later life, expressed as unrealistic views, entitlement beliefs and impaired autonomy.
Narcissistic personality disorder is where a person has difficulties in relating to themselves and others.
Researchers found overprotective parents may be preventing their children from learning from their own mistakes and developing problem-solving skills.
Researchers surveyed 328 young people aged 17-25 on their remembered experiences of their own parents. They factored in mlutiple parenting styles and measured personal traits against tools including the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.
Research fellow Dr Charlotte van Schie acknowledged it was difficult for many parents to strike the right balance.
"We want to protect our kids but are sometimes going too far, and maybe don't realise that that can also hamper their development," she said.
"We always advocate the Goldilocks approach - not too hot, not too cold, but just right.
"When praising your children, let it be done in a way that is proportionate to what they've achieved - and you don't really have to praise a child for everything.
"Sometimes the reward is just in being able to do something for themselves, or learning something new."
Dr van Schie suspects at least some of today's overvaluing behaviour could stem from the abundance of research carried out in the 1990s and early-2000s that linked higher self-esteem to better health and lifestyle outcomes - "so maybe we've started overdoing it".
"It also happens in the school environment, where people sometimes get certificates or diplomas for many things - like graduating kindergarten for example."
"I guess that came from the idea of helping people to feel good about themselves, but maybe we've taken it a little bit too far."